There are two types of hemorrhoids:
- Internal hemorrhoids: which are located inside rectum.
- External hemorrhoids: which are located under the outer layer of anus.
The main cause of hemorrhoids is swollen veins in anal and lower part of rectum which occur due to increased pressure on these veins. Due to increase pressure in these veins, blood starts pooling in these veins leading to stretching of these vessels and thus developing into swollen condition. The factors which lead to increased pressure on these veins are:
- Rushing: Making haste while passing stools or during bowel movement can lead to increased pressure or excess strain on the veins present in rectal part.
- Constipation or diarrhoea: These conditions may lead to strain and constant pressure on blood vessels present in the anal canal.
- Obesity: Overweight can also lead to the swollen condition. Excess fat deposition in pelvic and abdomen region can cause increase pressure on the veins.
- Pregnancy: Pregnancy lead to hormonal changes and especially during labour, contracting and relaxing of muscles and supportive tissue can cause intense pressure on the veins present in anal area. The pressure on rectum and anus could also be due to enlarged uterus. The hormonal changes occurring in pregnancy can also lead to weakening of muscles surrounding rectum and anus. And thus these all events can cause pooling of blood in the veins, leading to swelling.
- Other medical conditions: Chronic diseases of heart and liver may cause pooling of blood in abdomen and thus causes swelling of veins.
- Diet: Low fibre diet may also be responsible for the development of this condition. The smaller calibre stool will develop more strain during bowel movement and thus leads to increased pressure within the veins and thus causing them to swell.
- Anal intercourse: Anal intercourse can lead to pressure on the veins and thus can cause swelling of blood vessels.
- Poor posture: Your lifestyle behaviour may also lead to development of this condition. Prolonged sitting and poor posture may also cause pressure on the veins.
- Spinal cord injury: Any kind of injury in spinal cord which leads to poor posture of your body can lead to pressure on veins and development of this condition.
- Colon cancer: This can also be one of the factor for the development of this disease.